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  • Apron

    A gentle slope, with a generally smooth surface, particularly found around groups of islands and seamounts.

  • Arch

    A low bulge around the southeastern end of the island of Hawaii.

  • Arrugado

    An area of subdued corrugations off Baja California.

  • Bank

    An elevation, typically located on a shelf, over which the depth of water is relatively shallow but sufficient for safe surface navigation.

  • Banks

    Elevations, typically located on a shelf, over which the depth of water is relatively shallow but sufficient for safe surface navigation.

  • Basin

    A depression more or less equidimensional in plan and of variable extent.

  • Borderland

    A region adjacent to a continent, normally occupied by or bordering a shelf, that is highly irregular with depths well in excess of those typical of a shelf.

  • Canyon

    A relatively narrow, deep depression with steep sides, the bottom of which generally has a continuous slope.

  • Canyons

    Relatively narrow, deep depressions with steep sides, the bottom of which generally has a continuous slope.

  • Continental rise

    A gentle slope rising from oceanic depths towards the foot of a continental slope.

  • Cordillera

    An entire mountain system including the subordinate ranges, interior plateaus, and basins.

  • Deep

    A localized deep area within the confines of a larger feature, such as a trough, basin or trench.

  • Escarpment (or scarp)

    An elongated and comparatively steep slope separating flat or gently sloping areas.

  • Fan

    A relatively smooth feature normally sloping away from the lower termination of a canyon or canyon system.

  • Flat

    A small level or nearly level area.

  • Fracture zone

    An extensive linear zone of irregular topography of the sea floor, characterized by steep-sided or asymmetrical ridges, troughs, or escarpments.

  • Furrow

    A closed, linear, narrow, shallow depression.

  • Gap

    A narrow break in a ridge or rise.

  • Gully

    A small valley-like feature.

  • Hill

    An elevation rising generally less than 500 meters.

  • Hills

    Elevations rising generally less than 500 meters.

  • Hole

    A small depression of the sea floor.

  • Knoll

    An elevation rising generally more than 500 meters and less than 1,000 meters and of limited extent across the summit.

  • Knolls

    Elevations rising generally more than 500 meters and less than 1,000 meters and of limited extent across the summits.

  • Ledge

    A rocky projection or outcrop, commonly linear and near shore.

  • Levee

    An embankment bordering a canyon, valley, or seachannel.

  • Mesa

    An isolated, extensive, flat-topped elevation on the shelf, with relatively steep sides.

  • Moat

    An annular depression that may not be continuous, located at the base of many seamounts, islands, and other isolated elevations.

  • Mound

    A low, isolated, rounded hill.

  • Mountain

    A well-delineated subdivision of a large and complex positive feature.

  • Peak

    A prominent elevation, part of a larger feature, either pointed or of very limited extent across the summit.

  • Peaks

    Prominent elevations, part of a larger feature, either pointed or of very limited extent across the summit.

  • Pinnacle

    A high tower or spire-shaped pillar of rock or coral, alone or cresting a summit.

  • Plain

    A flat, gently sloping or nearly level region.

  • Plateau

    A comparatively flat-topped feature of considerable extent, dropping off abruptly on one or more sides.

  • Province

    A region identifiable by a group of similar physiographic features whose characteristics are markedly in contrast with surrounding areas.

  • Reef

    A surface-navigation hazard composed of consolidated material.

  • Reefs

    Surface-navigation hazards composed of consolidated material.

  • Ridge

    A long narrow elevation with steep sides.

  • Ridges

    Long narrow elevations with steep sides.

  • Rise

    A broad elevation that rises gently, and generally smoothly, from the sea floor.

  • Saddle

    A low part, resembling in shape a saddle, in a ridge or between contiguous seamounts.

  • Seachannel

    A continuously sloping, elongated depression commonly found in fans or plains and customarily bordered by levees on one or two sides.

  • Seachannels

    Continuously sloping, elongated depressions commonly found in fans or plains and customarily bordered by levees on one or two sides.

  • Seamount

    An elevation rising generally more than 1,000 meters and of limited extent across the summit.

  • Seamounts

    Elevations rising generally more than 1,000 meters and of limited extent across the summit.

  • Shelf

    A zone adjacent to a continent (or around an island) that extends from the low water line to a depth at which there is usually a marked increase of slope towards oceanic depths.

  • Shelf edge

    A line along which there is a marked increase of slope at the outer margin of a continental shelf or island shelf.

  • Shelf valley

    A valley on the shelf, generally the shoreward extension of a canyon.

  • Shoal

    A surface-navigation hazard composed of unconsolidated material.

  • Shoals

    Hazards to surface navigation composed of unconsolidated material.

  • Sill

    The low part of a gap or saddle separating basins.

  • Slope

    The slope seaward from the shelf edge to the beginning of a continental rise or the point where there is a general reduction in slope.

  • Spur

    A subordinate elevation, ridge, or rise projecting outward from a larger feature.

  • Tablemount (or guyot)

    A seamount having a comparatively smooth, flat top.

  • Tablemounts (or guyots)

    Seamounts having a comparatively smooth, flat top.

  • Terrace

    A relatively flat horizontal or gently inclined surface, sometimes long and narrow, which is bounded by a steeper ascending slope on one side and by a steep descending slope on the opposite side.

  • Tongue

    An elongate (tongue-like) extension of a flat sea floor into an adjacent higher feature.

  • Trench

    A long, narrow, characteristically very deep and asymmetrical depression of the sea floor, with relatively steep sides.

  • Trough

    A long depression of the sea floor characteristically flat bottomed and steep sided, and normally shallower than a trench.

  • Valley

    A relatively shallow, wide depression, the bottom of which usually has a continuous gradient.

  • Valleys

    A relatively shallow, wide depression, the bottom of which usually has a continuous gradient.